VOLUME 28 ISSUE 2 100 Years of the Department of Medicine From Stormy Seas to Blue Horizon: DEC 2023

02 Feature 專題故事 From Stormy Seas to Blue Horizons: 100 Years of the Department of Medicine 乘風破浪創新天——內科學系一百周年 26 The 210th Congregation 第210屆學位頒授典禮 28 Feature+ 專題+ Shifting the Paradigm – Building Trust and Partnership for Public Health 革新思維——為公共衞生建立互信 及夥伴關係 36 Inaugural Gabriel Leung Lecture 首屆梁卓偉講座 Tam Wing Fan Neuroimaging Research Laboratory Opening Ceremony 譚榮芬腦神經影像研究實驗室開幕典禮 140 for 140 全球招聘計劃 38 Feature+ 專題+ HKUMed’s Journey into Cutting Edge Technologies 善用科技——創新教學與治療 44 Achievements 獎項與成就 Editorial Team Editor-in-Chief Ada Leung Wing-yee Managing Editors Brenda Yau Rachel Jie Niki Shek Executive Editor Annie Lam Feature Writer Kathy Griffin Photographer (Feature+ portraits) Paul Yeung Graphic Design Good Morning Design 52 Clinical Service Excellence Award 2023 - Winners’ Sharing 2023年度學院臨床服務卓越獎⸺ 得獎感言 53 Activities and Events 活動紀要 56 People 人物 Hello 新臉孔 Appointments and Promotions 任命與晉升 In Remembrance 永遠懷念 Alumni News 校友活動 Student Achievements 學生成就 Student Activities 學生活動 66 Donations 捐贈者名單 www.med.hku.hk All rights reserved 2023 If you wish to receive the digital version of HKUMed News, please complete the online form by scanning the above QR code 如欲接收電子版HKUMed News, 請掃描二維碼並填寫網上表格 1 HKUMed News Winter 2023

FEATURE From Stormy Seas to Blue Horizons: 100 Years of the Department of Medicine The origins of modern healthcare in Hong Kong are deeply ingrained in the history of HKUMed, and indeed, of the city itself. From humble and often trying circumstances, the Faculty’s professoriate staff and units have worked tirelessly to meet Hong Kong’s needs, while also advancing medicine through research and scientific enquiry. A key contributor in all of this has been the Department of Medicine, a truly multidisciplinary centre with 12 divisions that plays a critical role in the education of all medical students at HKU, in the continuing education of medical professionals, and in the management of hospitals both in Hong Kong and, more recently, Shenzhen. 2

‘Our Department has trained countless medical professionals who have quietly protected the health and well-being of the people of Hong Kong over the century. But we do not rest on our laurels, no matter what challenges we have to face. In fact, looking back, you can see that we are committed to continually consolidating our strengths and aiming higher than before,’ said the Department Chairperson, Professor Tse Hung-fat. The roots of the Department are entwined with those of the Faculty as a whole. Scientist Sir Patrick Manson, philanthropist-medic Sir Ho Kai and their supporters founded the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese in 1887, which became the Faculty of Medicine, one of the founding faculties of HKU, in 1912. The Faculty became an early foothold in this part of the world for modern evidence-based medicine. In 1923, the Department of Medicine itself was formally established to sharpen this provision. Ever since, it has been at the heart of patient care and hospital management in Hong Kong and a major contributor to research into diseases that are especially harmful and virulent in Chinese populations. Moreover, it has been a springboard for the establishment of many medical specialties in the city and a source of many prominent medical and health leaders, The Department of Medicine was formally established in 1923 3 HKUMed News Winter 2023

FEATURE ‘Our ultimate goal has remained constant throughout our history: we want to improve patient care and patient outcomes through our teaching, our clinical expertise and our research.’ Professor Tse Hung-fat such as several of the Faculty’s deans, the founder of the Hong Kong Academy of Medicine Professor Sir David Todd, who was also a leader in the Faculty, and the Founding Dean of the medical school at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Professor Gerald Choa. This year, as the Department of Medicine celebrates its centenary, it is looking back on its past with an eye to the future, celebrating its achievements while also seeking to carry its rich and important legacy forward. ‘Our ultimate goal has remained constant throughout our history: we want to improve patient care and patient outcomes through our teaching, our clinical expertise and our research,’ Professor Tse said. ↑Sir Patrick Manson, Founding Dean of the Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese 香港華人西醫書院創院院長白文信爵士 ↑Professor Tse Hung-fat, Chairperson, Department of Medicine, SClinMed 臨床醫學學院內科學系系主任謝鴻發教授 ↑Professor Sir David Todd (Head, 1974-1989) was Founding President of the Hong Kong Academy of Medicine and Hong Kong College of Physicians 達安煇教授(1974-1989年擔任系主任)為香港醫學專科學院及香港內科 醫學院創院主席 4

Steps to Improvement A century ago, good health could be a precarious thing for Hong Kong people. Infections and infectious diseases such as tuberculosis abounded and the largely Chinese population was not always familiar with Western medicine, although that was swiftly changing. The Department of Medicine was established in this environment, at a time when the University of Hong Kong itself was facing financial difficulties. But it had a couple of things going for it: one was an endowment from the China Medical Board of the Rockefeller Foundation for a Chair Professor of Medicine. The other was a clear need for more expertise due to the dearth of medical professionals in the city. Indeed, soon after establishment, the Department was allocated onequarter of the beds plus the outpatient clinic in the Government Civil Hospital and it played a major role at Queen Mary Hospital (QMH) from the day it opened its doors in 1937. The city’s needs sustained the Department in the years to come, despite the disruption of the Second World War, when European staff were interned and students escaped to Free China to continue their studies where possible. It really started to show its worth in the post-war period, when Hong Kong’s population multiplied due to returning residents and an influx of refugees from the civil war. Not only were both staff and students helping to deal with a high patient load (in QMH, for instance, beds had to be set up on outdoor verandas when indoor space ran out), but they were also staying on top of the rapid advances and specialisation in biomedical sciences that were starting to appear at this time. This coincided with increases in life expectancy and noncommunicable diseases in the ↑The Department of Medicine in 1928 學系仝寅攝於1928年 ↓Queen Mary Hospital in 1940 1940年的瑪麗醫院 5 HKUMed News Winter 2023

FEATURE ‘One of our strengths today is that we have a full range of medical subspecialties. But a century ago, most of these did not even exist. We kept up with international developments and brought in these subspecialties as soon as we practically could.’ Professor Tse Hung-fat Hong Kong population. Throughout the 1950s and 1970s, the Department established seven specialties, including cardiology, endocrinology, gastroenterology & hepatology, haematology & oncology, nephrology, respiratory medicine and rheumatology; others would follow in the next few decades. Much of this was driven by Professor AJS McFadzean, whose autocratic style and exacting standards were instrumental in shaping the Department and the Faculty over his 26-year tenure from 1948-74. ‘One of our strengths today is that we have a full range of medical subspecialties. But a century ago, most of these did not even exist. We kept up with international developments and brought in these subspecialties as soon as we practically could,’ Professor Tse said. Some of these subspecialties would later spin off into departments of their own, such as Paediatrics, Psychiatry and Family Medicine. Staff introduced many ‘firsts’ in clinical care for Hong Kong based on research successes overseas. But they were also interested in pursuing their own ‘firsts’ to improve diagnosis and treatment for diseases that were particularly prevalent among Hong Kong population. Early research was motivated by that interest and has expanded in depth and breadth ever since. ←Students attending clinical lessons at the outpatient department of Sai Ying Pun Hospital in the 1950s. 1950年代醫科生在 西營盤診所學習 ↑Professor AJS McFadzean, Head of Department, 1948-1974 麥花臣教授,於1948-1974年間擔任系主任 6

↑Professor Vivian Chan Nap-yee (front row, 3rd from left) and academic staff of the Department of Medicine in 1985 陳立怡教授(前排左三) 及內科學系教職員攝於 1985年 ↓Professor Yuen Man-fung (left) Chair Professor and Chief of the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, SClinMed 臨床醫學學院內科學系腸胃肝臟科主管及講座教授袁孟峰教授(左) Finding New Solutions For much of the Department’s first 50 years, research focused on clinical cases. But as medical science advanced and new tools became available, it became clear there was much to be gained by focusing on bench-side research, too. In 1974, Professor McFadzean recruited the Department’s first scientist, Professor Vivian Chan Nap-yee, who was instrumental in establishing novel molecular biological techniques for better patient management and treatment. From that initial start, scientific research has expanded exponentially in the Department, helped by the establishment of the Research Grants Council in 1991 and, in particular, by a strengthening research culture over the past couple of decades. The result has been a string of important discoveries across the divisions that have improved patient outcomes – work that continues to this day. For instance, Professor Yuen Man-fung and his team in the Division of Hepatology recently helped one in 10 patients achieve a functional cure in a Phase II clinical trial of the drug bepirovirsen. A Phase III trial is underway with the goal of aiming for 30 per cent success. Earlier, they showed that 7.8 per cent of the Hong Kong population carries the hepatitis B virus, many of them unaware of this. They also showed that entecavir is effective in suppressing the virus and decreasing liver failure, which informed the World Health Organization’s aim to eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030. Innovations have also been made in cancer treatments. For instance, the Department was the first in the world to pioneer the use of an oral formulation of arsenic trioxide for treating acute promyelocytic leukaemia that was awarded the Gold Medal at the 46th International Exhibition of Inventions of Geneva in 2018 and for which there are multiple patents. There is also a new HK$42 million Theme-based Research project, to develop personalised and innovative treatments for acute myeloid leukaemia. 7 HKUMed News Winter 2023

FEATURE Heart and other diseases are also benefiting from new technologies and research collaborations across disciplines. ‘Our efforts now are focused on maximising the impact of our research by expanding collaborations between departments, between institutions, and internationally,’ Professor Tse said. Professor Tse himself is co-leader with Professor Eric Tse Wai-choi of Hong Kong’s first GMP-standard laboratory, which opened in May 2023 with the Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation. The lab is a research platform for human cell-based therapy clinical trials and the development of advanced therapy products, with an initial focus on stem cell therapy for cardiac diseases and CAR-T cell therapy for blood cancers. Another recent collaboration has been the new multidisciplinary Centre for Translational Stem Cell Biology, which has received HK$284.6 million under Health@InnoHK and has as a co-principal investigator the Dean of Medicine and rheumatologist, Professor Chak-sing Lau. He is leading efforts to better understand systemic lupus and immunedeficiencies and ultimately develop better treatments. The new Centre of Cancer Medicine, established in October 2022, also brings together different disciplines and subspecialties to focus on the academic development of oncology and is working closely with the Faculty’s flagship cancer programmes, the Jockey Club Centre for Clinical Innovation and Discovery and the Jockey Club Institute of Cancer Care. Collaboration also features in established research centres led by or closely involving the Department, such as the Guangdong-Hong Kong Joint Laboratory on Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine (with the Guangzhou Institutes of Biomedicine and Health), the State Key Laboratory (SKL) of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology (with a similar SKL at Nanjing University), and the HKU Clinical Trials Centre (with other Faculty units and the Hospital Authority’s Hong Kong West Cluster). Professor Tse said that apart from collaboration, the Department is also seeking to advance research through recruitment. ‘We are recruiting more academic staff under the Faculty’s 140 for 140 campaign [to recruit 140 staff by HKUMed’s 140th anniversary in 2027], and giving incentives to new recruits to get involved in research. One thing we want to do is to provide younger staff with relief from some clinical duties if they are awarded General Research Fund (GRF) grants,’ he added. Recruitment targets include scholars with special expertise, such as biostatistics, that is sought by all divisions – people not unlike Professor Vivian Chan five decades ago. ‘Finding the right experts and promising young talent will drive our Department forward because ultimately, people are at the heart of our success,’ Professor Tse said. ↑Research trainings in the 1950s 1950年代醫科生接受 科研培訓 ↓Researchers working at HKUMed Laboratory of Cellular Therapeutics 研究員於香港大學 細胞治療實驗室展開嶄 新科研工作 8

↓Professor Rosie Young, Emeritus Professor and Honorary Clinical Professor of Department of Medicine, SClinMed 臨床醫學學院內科學系 榮休教授和名譽臨床教 授楊紫芝教授 (photo by Dick Tse) A Community Resource Research endeavours work hand in hand with clinical services. In fact, it is in clinical care where the Department and Faculty have made the biggest impacts on people’s lives in Hong Kong. From its earliest days, the Department’s professors carried the highest standards of care into both the ward and the classroom. People like Professor McFadzean, Professor Todd and Professor Rosie Young Tse-tse established a rigorous culture that emphasises knowledgeable, professional and compassionate care for patients. They have been also at the forefront in pioneering specialist care in Hong Kong to meet changing health needs as living standards increased, and in bringing the latest medical science to Hong Kong. The Department began setting up specialist clinical centres from the 1970s, such as a diabetes centre, endoscopy service, a unit for end-stage kidney disease, diagnostic and treatment services for advanced lung cancer, immunology and rheumatology services, neurology services and so on. Nonetheless, more fundamental changes were needed at the city-wide level to deal with Hong Kong’s creaking hospital services and changing needs. In 1990 the Hospital Authority was founded and in 1995 the University Medical Unit and Government Medical Unit were merged, greatly enlarging the Department so that it not only had facilities and staff at QMH, but at three other local hospitals, overseeing more than 1,000 hospital beds and 75 outpatient clinics. Today, the Faculty as a whole has four affiliated teaching hospitals – QMH, Gleneagles Hospital Hong Kong, Hong Kong Sanatorium & Hospital, and HKU-Shenzhen Hospital which opened in 2012. The structure of clinical care offered by the Department has 9 HKUMed News Winter 2023

↓Professor Yuen hopes his team's newly discovered treatment could achieve a 30 per cent cure rate among chronic ←Medical students during clinical training in the 1950s. 1950年代醫科生接受 臨床培訓。 →Dr Loey Mak Lung-yi, Clinical Assistant Professor, Department of Medicine, SClinMed was one of the clinical teaching staff with remarkable achievements in research. She was named winner of the prestigious EASL Emerging Leader Award in 2023. 臨床醫學學院内科學系 臨床助理教授麥龍兒 醫生是學系其中一位 臨床教學與研究表現 兼優的學者,於2023 年獲歐洲肝臟研究協會 新進領袖獎。 FEATURE also moved with the times and become less siloed and more cross-disciplinary and comprehensive. Joint clinics have been established to provide holistic services, such as in geriatrics where the Department pioneered the use of multidisciplinary teams in Hospital Authority-managed hospitals. Another example would be the Integrated Cardiovascular Diseases Centre at Queen Mary Hospital, aiming to provide one-stop services to cardiovascular disease patients to enhance diagnosis and treatment processes, which is now in preparatory stage. The Department’s expertise across many specialties also makes it a major referral centre in Hong Kong for difficult or unusual cases. It also had a prominent role during the COVID-19 pandemic when it became deeply engaged in both patient care and research – a signifier of a trend across the Department. ‘When it comes to clinical services, we are very keen to promote a research mindset to help us be even better,’ Professor Tse said. Clinical practitioners are actively being recruited who have potential to be groomed along an academic track to pursue more basic research. Joint appointments have also been made with the School of Biomedical Sciences and the School of Public Health to foster interdisciplinary collaboration – the appointees spend half their time working on clinical services, half on basic research. The GRF incentive scheme described above also benefits this group. Of course, the reliance on people works both ways. The Department not only seeks to recruit talent, it is also a critical source of talent as a major provider of trained medical professionals to meet Hong Kong’s health needs – perhaps the most important part of its mission. ‘When it comes to clinical services, we are very keen to promote a research mindset to help us be even better.’ Professor Tse Hung-fat 10

↑Medical education and training in the 1950s 1950年代醫科生培訓 ↓Students have been receiving POCUS trainings since 2022. 自2022年起,所有 醫科生均需學習 POCUS的臨床應用。 Teaching for the Future HKUMed’s graduates have been the backbone of medical and healthcare in Hong Kong throughout the Faculty’s history, with the Department as a key educator. For nearly a century, the MBBS curriculum was relatively unchanged. But in the 1990s there was growing realisation that it had become impossible for students to master the vast amount of new knowledge emerging from scientific enquiry. Rather, they needed skills for lifelong training and for extracting the most relevant information. Future doctors also needed to know how to take care of themselves so they could be better equipped to serve their patients. These realisations resulted in several major changes, starting with the introduction of problembased learning in 1997 and followed by the six-year curriculum in 2012 and the Enrichment Year for third-year students in 2016. The Department played a leading role in helping the Faculty to implement these changes, even as student numbers increased significantly from 150 in 1997 to 295 in 2023. More recent changes have centred around new technologies to enhance doctors’ capacities at the bedside. From 2022, all clinical-year students are provided with point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS), a revolutionary device that allows for ultrasounds on the spot with patients (otherwise, it can take weeks and even months to book a traditional ultrasound appointment). Telemedicine training has been introduced so students learn how to remotely monitor patients who may have mobility issues or are required to stay at home, for instance due to a pandemic. And virtual reality is used to train students in clinical pharmacology, prescription safety and the like, giving them valuable exposure that might otherwise be out of reach because students are not licensed to prescribe medications. Clerkships are also being updated. In 2019, specialist outpatient clinics were opened up for undergraduate teaching. Recently, the Specialty Clerkship – the last function of the medical curriculum – was adjusted to have students go through different subspecialties on a weekly basis. The 140+ CORE Curriculum will also soon introduce the Mega Clerkship which combines the junior and senior clerkships for more indepth and comprehensive patient cases. And tablet-based examinations are coming that will improve efficiency. ‘These changes make our students better prepared for the future of medicine. But they still align with what we believe are the hallmarks of a “good medical doctor”: clinical knowledge, clinical skills, professionalism and ethics. We deliver all of that in our teaching,’ Professor Tse said. 11 HKUMed News Winter 2023

Teaching is not bound to the campuses and hospitals, though. The Department also organises an ongoing series of in-person and online public lectures where its scholars discuss medical conditions that are prevalent in Hong Kong to raise people’s awareness of these conditions and of the research and new therapies available. The annual Medical Research Conference fosters collaboration across disciplines and institutes around a chosen topic – this year The Francis Crick Institute was a co-organiser and the theme was on inflammation, degeneration and regeneration. Most importantly, the Department is a key provider of continuing medical education through its flagship Hong Kong Medical Forum. The annual Forum was launched in 1996 at the old Furama Hotel with nearly 300 registrations; today it has more than 2,500 registrations each year. Leading local and overseas experts are invited to speak on a wide range of disciplines and subspecialties to family and specialist physicians, general practitioners, basic and higher physician trainees, nurses, allied health professionals and medical students. At the 2023 Forum, which had as its theme ‘Safeguarding Human Health for a Century and Beyond’, the Chief Executive of the HKSAR government, Mr John Lee Ka-chiu, spoke at the kickoff ceremony in honour of the Department’s 100th anniversary and praised its contributions to Hong Kong. This was the first time a Hong Kong government leader had attended the event, and he was accompanied by the Chairman of the HKU Council, Ms Priscilla Wong Pui-sze. ‘Through advancing health care, medical education and research,’ Mr Lee said, ‘the Department has stood by its mission and always strives for excellence in teaching, research and clinical service in medicine. Over the past century, you have made notable achievements to advancing knowledge and research, nurturing talents and leaders, and delivering first-class clinical services to the community.’ FEATURE ↓Kick-off Ceremony of the 100th Anniversary of Department of Medicine cum Opening of the 27th Hong Kong Medical Forum 內科學系成立一百周年 誌慶啟動禮暨第二十七 屆香港醫學論壇開幕禮 Beyond the Clinic and the Classroom 12

The Department has been able to fulfil its mission of excellence and care despite upheavals and trials over these past 100 years because it also adheres to another aim – to strive to be better. That has meant being well-informed, flexible, and always with an eye to anticipating and acting on new developments. Such an attitude served it very well during the ↑Logo designed by Ambrose Leung Pak-wah (MBBS Year 6), in celebration of the 100th anniversary of the Department of Medicine 由六年級醫科生梁柏華設計的内科學系百周年紀念標誌 ↑HKU-Cambridge Joint Medical Symposium and the Centenary Gala Dinner, held on 11 November 2023 於2023年11月11日 舉辦的港大-劍橋大學 聯合醫學論壇及百周年 晚宴 Future Focus COVID-19 pandemic and is doing so now, with the advent of artificial intelligence. ‘We have already been using AI in research to help improve diagnosis and prognosis of some cancers,’ Professor Tse said. ‘On the other hand, we should not rely too heavily on AI. It cannot replace the physician and teacher, certainly not in the human qualities that make great physicians and teachers. But it can be a great aid for clinical service and output.’ ‘Modern and newer facilities will facilitate more clinical research,’ he shared. ‘And with new talent and the continued advancement of our existing staff, we look forward to lifting our research profile and growing and excelling further in our mission to serve Hong Kong.’ 13 HKUMed News Winter 2023

FEATURE The 100th anniversary celebrations of the Department of Medicine were marked not only by a series of academic conferences, but also in song. Composed by Professor Sydney Tang Chi-wai, Deputy Chairperson of the Department, who also chaired the organising committee of the centenary celebration, the Centenary Song, is fittingly called A Miracle Within after Dr Michael Cheung Ka-shing and Dr Woo Yu-cho wrote witty lyrics for it. Staff and students actively participated in the making of a music video. This three-minute Cantonese pop song reflects all remarkable aspects and achievements of the Department – its history, its specialties, warm teacherstudent relations, and visions for the future. The video has been uploaded to YouTube and was also shown at the opening of the Hong Kong Medical Forum in May, when it was praised by the Chief Executive of the HKSAR government, Mr John Lee Ka-chiu. Celebration in Song ‘I was touched... by not just the professionalism of our medical colleagues, but the warmth and the soft side that they have displayed in this music video. So I want to tell everybody from now on that it is not just the helpful attitude and the kind hearts of the medical professionals in Hong Kong, it is also their love and passion for Hong Kong that have been fully expressed in this very lovely music video,’ Mr Lee said. In addition to the Forum, the Medical Research Conference in January also commemorated the 100th anniversary, as did a joint symposium in November with the University of Cambridge, titled ‘Embracing Medical Sciences into the Next Centenary’. The Department also worked with RTHK’s Doctor and You Programme and the HiEggo YouTube channel to produce a series of special episodes about each of the 12 divisions. Scan the QR code for the music video of A Miracle Within 14

A Miracle Within Composed by Sydney Tang Original Lyrics by Michael Cheung | YC Woo Translated into English by Sydney Tang Produced by Hei Chiu From the beginning of practising medicine, Devoted to the cause of healing like Hua Tuo. Eager to innovate in teaching, Now is the time for teachers and students to sing as pals. Unafraid of hardships, Striving to break through in research. Melodies resound, spanning a thousand miles, outreaching afar and awide. The heart, lungs, liver, brain, kidneys, glands, blood, skin and muscles summon power to boost immunity and ward off catastrophes like tumours and infections. Rooted in the wisdom of a hundred rivers over a century emerged a famed and all-round Department of Medicine. Engaging in intellectual exchanges, surpassing the former self, Shouldering the past and the future's merits and faults. Silk threads softly spun, embroidered with a thousand stars, Remember to seize every moment and stay vibrant as ever. Narrative: More than a hundred years ago, Hong Kong was going through turbulent times, and its people were plagued by various incurable illnesses. In 1923, the Department of Medicine of the University of Hong Kong emerged in the west end of the city. Over the past century, it has nurtured countless healthcare professionals, benefitting people's livelihood and striving for excellence. The following chronicles the rise of this Department. Lyrics: In the beginning, in the primitive state, Inevitably troubled and helpless. Diseases, like demons, Ravaged and tormented Hong Kong amidst storms. In the west end of the city, Light shone upon the towering mountains, Nurturing healers and spreading love. The heart, lungs, liver, brain, kidneys, glands, blood, skin and muscles summon power to boost immunity and ward off catastrophes like tumours and infections. Rooted in the wisdom of a hundred rivers over a century emerged a famed and all-round Department of Medicine. Transforming into Sherlock Holmes, and Focusing on observing, questioning, listening, examining, improving and sharpening. Vocal By: Sydney Tang Yuen Man-fung Raymond Cheung Ivan Hung Michael Cheung Jojo Hai Paul Lee David Lui Loey Mak Woo Yu-cho Apple Chan (MBBS Year 4) Charis Yue (MBBS Year 4) 15 HKUMed News Winter 2023

內科學系系主任謝鴻發教授指 出:「一個世紀以來,內科學系培育了 無數醫療專業人員,默默守護著香港 市民的健康福祉。但我們絕不會安於 現狀、故步自封。回顧過去,無論遇 上任何挑戰,團隊都一直致力發揮學 系的優良傳統,在堅實的基礎上邁步 向前,朝著更高、更遠的目標進發﹔ 相信我們的努力和成績,大家都有目 共睹。」 內科學系的成立與學院的整體 發展淵源甚深,醫學院的前身⸺ 香港華人西醫書院在1887年由「大醫」 白文信爵士、慈善家兼醫生何啟爵士 及多位善長仁翁創立,並於1912年成 為香港大學的創校學院之一,亦是亞 太地區現代實證醫學領域的先驅。 1923年,內科學系正式成立, 以提供更完善的醫學教育。自此以後, 學系便成為本港傷患護理及臨床管治 的中流砥柱,亦就華人社群中較普遍 及致命的疾病進行了大量重要研究。 此外,學系也促成了本港多個醫學專 科的成立,多年來培育眾多傑出醫療 衞生領袖,包括幾位歷任醫學院院長、 香港醫學專科學院創辨人暨學院德高 望重的學者達安輝教授,及香港中文 大學醫學院的創院院長蔡永業教授。 今年,學系慶祝成立一百周年。 學系今天的成就是前人共同努力的成 果,然而前人種樹,後人卻不能只顧 乘涼⸺學系致力追求卓越,冀承先 啟後,繼往開來。 謝教授表示:「學系的終極目標始 終如一:就是透過教學、臨床專業知 識及研究,改善病人護理及治療效果。」 FEATURE 本港現代醫療的起源深深札根於港大醫學院的歷史發展,亦見證了這城市的發展與蛻變。 一路走來,學院各個部門的教職員在艱難的環境中努力不懈,致力滿足本港醫療需求, 同時透過科研推動醫學發展。港大醫學院內科學系對本港醫療發展有舉足輕重的 影響⸺學系由12個部門組成、實踐跨學科發展理念,不僅致力培育醫科人才、 為醫療專業人員提供持續進修課程,更在本港及深圳肩負臨床管治的重任。 乘風破浪創新天—— 內科學系一百周年 ↑學系仝寅攝於2019年 The Department of Medicine in 2019 ↑臨床醫學學院內科學系系主任謝鴻發教授 Professor Tse Hung-fat, Chairperson, Department of Medicine, SClinMed 16

百年樹人 一個世紀前的香港,結核等傳染 病相當普遍,加上大部分華人對西方 醫學認識不多,對於廣大市民來説, 健康絕非唾手可得。彼時香港大學也 正面臨沉重的財政壓力,內科學系在 這樣的背景下成立,實屬不易。幸而 絕處逢生遇救來⸺有見本港在多個 醫學關鍵範疇缺乏全職教員,美國洛 克菲勒基金會旗下的中華醫學基金會 雪中送炭,協助學院設立包括內科在 內的講座教授席,不但及時挽救了大 學,也為內科學系的發展奠定了基礎。 事實上,學系成立不久,便獲政府公 立醫院分配四分之一的床位及門診診 所,作臨床教研之用。此外,瑪麗醫 院自1937年投入服務以來,學系一 直在該院擔當重要角色。 二戰期間,來自歐洲的教職員屢 遭扣押,大量學生也在香港淪陷時逃 往中國內地繼續學業。儘管如此,種 種打擊未有窒礙學系的發展。戰後港 人回流,難民湧入,導致本港人口倍 增,社會對醫療服務的需求甚殷,學 系的貢獻和價值也漸獲肯定。 學系師生不但需要協助應對院內 病患眾多、遠超負荷的情況(當時瑪 麗醫院的室內、甚至室外走廊,皆放 滿病床),亦在醫研創新方面始終保持 領導地位,並積極拓展當時正在萌芽 的生物醫學。與此同時,本港人口預 期壽命上升,非傳染性疾病亦漸趨普 遍,令本港市民對醫療服務的需求更 加殷切。 1950至70年代,學系成立了七 個專科,包括心臟科、內分泌科、腸 胃及肝臟科、血液及腫瘤科、腎臟科、 呼吸系統科和風濕科;其他專科在隨 後數十年間亦相繼成立。麥花臣教授 可說是這一切發展的主要推手,其嚴 謹的作風在他長達26年(1948至 1974年)的任期中,對學系和整個醫 學院的發展起到了關鍵作用。 謝教授說:「內科學系當前的優勢 之一,是設有全方位的亞專科。一個 世紀前,大部分亞專科還未成立。只 要情況許可,學系定必盡早引入這些 亞專科,以緊貼全球醫學發展。」部分 專科後來更發展成為獨立的學系,如 兒科、精神醫學及家庭醫學。 此外,學系成員憑藉享譽國際的 研究成果,為本港取得多項臨床服務的 「第一」,亦成功改善多種疾病的診斷 和治療方式⸺特別是針對本港常見 的疾病作研究。學系成員對醫研的熱 忱驅動了早期的科研發展,並不斷將 研究領域拓展得更深更廣。 ↑1950年代的西營盤 診所坐滿求診的病人 與家屬 Sai Ying Pun Hospital in the 1950s crowded with patients and their families →瑪麗醫院於1937年 成立Queen Mary Hospital was established in 1937 17 HKUMed News Winter 2023

推陳出新 內科學系成立最初半個世紀,大 部分研究都建基於臨床病例。但隨著 醫學的進步和新技術的出現,學系的 實驗室基礎研究也開始嶄露頭角。 1974年,麥花臣教授聘請了學系首 位科學家陳立怡教授,她透過建立新 型分子生物學技術以提升病患管理與 治療成效,在推動嶄新研究領域方面 貢獻良多。 自此,學系的科研發展一日千里。 1991年,研究資助局的成立增加了 學系的研究經費來源,促使各個專科 組別在各自範疇屢獲佳績,並大大提 升不同疾病的治療成果。多年來,學 系成員對醫研創新的熱誠一直沒有減 退,並延續至今。 其中一個例子,就是肝臟科權威 學者袁孟峰教授及其團隊,最近在藥 物bepirovirsen的第二階段臨床試驗 中,成功令一成慢性乙型肝炎患者達 到功能性治癒。此藥目前正進行第三 階段臨床試驗,目標是取得 30% 的 成功率。較早前,團隊發現本港人口 中有7.8%為隱性乙型肝炎帶菌者,亦 發現藥物entecavir可有效抑制病毒, 並減少肝衰竭,這些重大發現,都有 助香港達到世界衞生組織訂下、於 2030年前消除全球病毒性肝炎的目標。 學系在癌症治療方面也有所突 破,例如成為全球首次成功使用三氧 化二砷口服製劑治療急性前骨髓細胞 白血病的研究團隊。此項發明在 2018年榮獲第46屆日內瓦國際發明 展金獎,並取得多項專利。此外,學 系不久前成功獲得4,200萬港元資助, 開展一項嶄新主題研究項目,為急性 骨髓性白血病研發個人化和創新治療。 新技術的應用和跨學科的研究合 作大幅提升心臟病和其他疾病的研究 方式與成果。謝教授表示:「目前, 我們正努力加強不同學系、機構以及 國際之間的相互合作,讓研究成果可 發揮更大影響力。」 2023年五月,由謝鴻發教授與 謝偉財教授共同領導本港首個獲良好 生產規範(GMP)認證的實驗室正式 成立,該實驗室是與香港科技園合作 的成果,作為人類細胞治療臨床試驗 和先進療法產品開發的研究平台。目 前的研究重點是為心血管疾病患者提 供幹細胞療法,以及為血癌患者提供 CAR-T細胞治療。 另一項多學科協作項目,是學系 新成立的幹細胞轉化研究中心,該中 心為Health@InnoHK創新平台一員, 獲 2.846億港元資助,並由醫學院院 長兼風濕病學家劉澤星教授擔任聯合 首席研究員。劉教授正帶領團隊加深 了解系統性狼瘡及免疫缺陷疾病,冀 開發更有效的治療方法。 於2022年10月新成立的癌症醫 學中心,匯聚了不同專科和亞專科, 專注於腫瘤科的學術研究與發展,並 與學院的旗艦癌症項目⸺賽馬會臨 床創新及研發中心和賽馬會癌症綜合 關護中心緊密合作。 其他協作項目包括由學系領導或 積極參與的研究中心,如粵港幹細胞 及再生醫學聯合實驗室(與廣州生物醫 藥與健康研究院合作)、香港大學生物 醫藥技術國家重點實驗室(與南京大學 生物醫藥技術國家重點實驗室合作)及 香港大學臨床試驗中心(與其他學院單 位和醫院管理局港島西聯網合作)。 謝教授續稱,除協作項目,學系 亦廣納賢才,以促進研究發展。 「我們正透過學院的『140 for 140 』全球招聘計劃(目標於2027 年 學院成立 140 周年之前招募 140 名 教職員)吸納更多學術人員,並鼓勵 他們參與研究。若青年學者獲優配研 究金資助,學系將為他們減輕部分臨 床職務,藉此鼓勵他們投放更多時間 從事研究工作。」 學系期望招募像陳立怡教授般具 備特別專長的學者,如近年各個專科 部門正積極招攬的生物統計學人才。 謝教授展望:「找到合適的專家和出色 的青年學者,可帶動整個學系的發展 更上層樓,因為歸根結底,人才方是 我們成功的關鍵。」 FEATURE ↑香港大學細胞治療 實驗室於2023年5月 正式開幕,將進一步 推動「先進療法產品 (ATPs)」的發展。 HKUMed Laboratory of Cellular Therapeutics opened in May 2023 to facilitate the development of advanced therapy products (ATPs). 18

服務社區 研究工作與臨床服務向來相輔相 成。事實上,在臨床護理方面,學院 與學系對本港市民的生活影響至深。 自學系成立初期,教授們就將最高標 準的病人護理帶進病房和教室。麥花 臣教授、達安輝教授和楊紫芝教授等 學者建立了處事嚴謹的工作文化,強 調要給予病人以知識為基礎、專業和 具同理心的照護。 同時,教授們總是位處最前線, 帶領本港提升專科護理質素,以滿足 大眾隨著生活水平提高而不斷變化的 醫療需求,並引入最新的醫療服務。 學系自1970年代起設立專科臨床中 心,如糖尿病中心、內窺鏡服務、專 門診治末期腎病的組別、晚期肺癌診 斷和治療服務、免疫學和風濕病學服 務、神經內科服務等。 儘管如此,本港醫療體系仍需進 行更徹底的改革,以改善醫療服務並 應對社會對醫療需求的持續變化。 1990年,醫院管理局成立,而大學 內科部和港府醫務部門亦於1995年合 併,學系的規模大幅擴充,擔當起管 理瑪麗醫院和另外三間本地醫院超過 1,000張病床以及75間門診診所的重 任。目前,學院的教學醫院包括了瑪 麗醫院、港怡醫院、養和醫院及於 2012年起投入運作的港大深圳醫院。 學系的臨床服務架構也與時並 進,過去患者一般接受獨立專科醫 療,演變至目前由跨專科團隊主理。 各個綜合診所亦相繼成立,學系在醫 院管理局轄下醫院率先採用跨學科團 隊提供老人科綜合服務。另外,正處 於籌備階段的瑪麗醫院心血管疾病綜 合醫療中心,旨在為心血管疾病患者 提供一站式醫療護理,以提升診斷和 治療效果。學系的專長涵蓋眾多專科 領域,本港不少難治之症,都會獲轉 介至學系主理的診所,接受進一步評 估與治療。 新冠疫情期間,內科學系也身負 重任,尤其在疾病的醫治與研究方面, 同時展現學系臨床與科研並重的整體 趨勢。謝教授闡釋:「臨床服務的成效 與科研成果息息相關,學系致力鼓勵 及推動研究思維,使之在臨床與科研 的表現都可持續進步,力臻完善。」 學系正積極招募有志在學術方面 作進一步發展的臨床醫生,鼓勵他們 從事更多基礎研究。學系亦與生物醫 學學院和公共衞生學院進行聯合聘任, 以促進跨學科合作⸺受聘者有一半 工時會提供臨床服務,其餘時間則進 行基礎研究,他們亦可申請上文提及 的優配研究金計劃。 誠然,學系不僅廣納賢能,亦致 力作育英才,以滿足本港的醫療需 求⸺這或許是內科學系眾多使命中 最重要的一環。 ↑臨床醫學學院內科學 系榮休教授和名譽臨床 教授楊紫芝教授 Professor Rosie Young, Emeritus Professor and Honorary Clinical Professor of Department of Medicine, SClinMed ←1950年代醫科生於西營盤醫院接受臨床培訓 Medical students attending clinical trainings at the Sai Ying Pun Hospital in the 1950s 19 HKUMed News Winter 2023

惠澤社群 然而,教學並不僅限於校園和醫 院範圍。學系多年來舉辦一系列實體 及網上公開講座,學者們藉此與公眾 探討本港常見疾病,提升大眾對多種 疾病的認識,包括醫學研究及創新療 法。一年一度的「醫學研究會議」 (Medical Research Conference)圍 繞特定主題,促進跨學科及國際合 作⸺本年度的協辦機構為英國弗朗 西斯· 克里克研究所(The Francis Crick Institute),主題是炎症、退化 及再生。 更重要的是,學系透過其年度盛事 「香港醫學論壇」(Hong Kong Medical Forum),為本港延續醫學教育作出卓 越貢獻。首屆論壇在1996年於前富麗 華酒店舉行,吸引近300人參加;如 今,每年的與會者超過2,500人,當 中包括家庭醫生和專科醫生、普通科 醫生、基礎和高級實習醫生、護士、 專職醫療人員及醫科生。每屆論壇均 邀得本地和海外頂尖專家,分享各個 專科及亞專科的最新發展。 2023年的論壇以「跨越一世紀, 守護人類健康」為主題,由行政長官 李家超先生主禮。他在啟動禮上祝賀 學系成立一百周年,並讚揚其對香港 的貢獻,這是活動首次邀得行政長官蒞 臨,港大校務委員會主席王沛詩女士 亦陪同出席。 行政長官致辭時表示:「透過促 進醫療、醫學教育和研究,學系堅守 其使命,一直在醫學教育、研究和臨 床服務方面追求卓越。在過去一世紀, 學系團隊在推動知識與研究發展、培 養醫療人才和領袖,以及為社會提供 優質臨床服務方面,均取得顯著的成 就。」 ↑四年級醫科生在 瑪麗醫院接受臨床 教學培訓。 MBBS Year 4 students attending bedside training at Queen Mary Hospital. →內科學系成立 一百周年誌慶啟動禮 暨第二十七屆香港醫學 論壇開幕禮 Kick-off Ceremony of the 100th Anniversary of Department of Medicine cum Opening of the 27th Hong Kong Medical Forum FEATURE培育明日專才 學院的畢業生是本港醫療服務的 中流砥柱,而學系亦向來是培育優秀 醫療人才的基地。縱使內外全科醫學 士課程在前期變化不大,但到了1990 年代,大家開始意識到要求醫科生完 全掌握一切日新月異的科研知識是不 切實際;反之,他們需要的是終身學 習的能力,以及吸收最相關資訊的技 能。未來的醫者必需做到「能醫亦自 醫」⸺懂得照顧自己,才能為病人 提供最佳治療。 這些時代思維的轉變,啟發了幾 項重要的課程改革:首先是於 1997 年引入問題導向學習,隨後是 2012 年的六年制課程及自2016年起為三年 級醫科生設立的增潤學年。學系在協 助學院實施這些改革方面肩負重任, 亦見證著醫科生人數從1997年的150 人大幅增加至2023年的295人。 至於最近期的轉變,則集中透過 運用嶄新科技,提高臨床服務成效。 自2022年起,所有進入臨床學習的高 年級醫科生都獲配備有「明日的聽診 器」之稱的手提超聲波儀器,這項革命 性便攜式設備,可供醫生或醫科生即 時為病人進行超聲波檢查(而傳統超聲 波或需輪候數週甚至數月的時間)。學 院亦引入遙距醫療培訓,讓學生熟習 如何運用遠端監察行動不便或患上傳 染病而需留在家中的病人。此外,由 於學生還未取得處方藥物的專業資格, 應用虛擬實境技術可為他們提供臨床 藥理學及藥物處方安全等方面的培訓 體驗。 醫科生的見習安排也有所轉變, 2019年開設的專科門診診所為本科生 提供教學平台。學院近期為專科見習 (醫科課程的最後階段)作出調整,讓 學生每週學習不同的亞專科。新推出 的140+ CORE課程將初級和高級見習 整合為一個單元,以增進學生對不同 病例更深入及全面的理解。學院亦將 運用平板電腦輔助考試,以提高效率。 謝教授稱:「這些轉變為學生未來 行醫作更佳準備,同時符合我們一直 恪守、培訓『優秀醫生』的標準:他們 必須擁有豐富的臨床知識與技能、兼 具專業精神和醫學倫理道德,以仁心 對待病人,而這一切都在教學中實踐。」 20

一百年來,儘管經歷了多重挑戰 和考驗,學系成員仍孜孜不倦,持續 履行追求卓越和關懷病患的使命⸺ 他們精益求精,以知識為本、靈活變 通、對未來準備充足以迅速應變,配 合醫療發展及社會需求。這種積極的 態度不僅讓學系能有效應對新冠疫情, 更能積極擁抱人工智能所帶來的機遇。 謝教授表示:「內科學系已在多 項研究項目中使用人工智能,特別是 幫助改善癌症的診斷和預後。但我們 也無需過度依賴,因人工智能無法取 代醫生和教師,亦無法取代成為優秀 醫生和教師所具備的人文關懷等特 質。然而無可否認,人工智能對輔助 臨床服務及提升其服務量的確有很大 幫助。」 謝教授補充:「現代化嶄新設備將 促進更多臨床研究成果,隨著學系新 人才的加入和現有成員的不斷進步, 我們期待進一步提升整體研究水平, 為履行服務香港的使命作出貢獻。」 著眼未來 內科學系就百周年誌慶舉辦了多項慶 祝活動,除一系列學術會議之外,還 創作了一首百周年紀念歌曲《內有乾 坤》,由副系主任兼系慶籌委會主席鄧 智偉教授作曲、張嘉盛醫生及胡裕初 醫生填上睿智的歌詞,其音樂短片由 學系師生積極參與製作。這首三分鐘 的粵語流行曲充分展示了學系的特色 與優勢⸺悠久的歷史、涵蓋廣泛的 專科範疇、暖心的師生關係以及對未 來的願景。音樂短片已上載至 YouTube,並於本年5月香港醫學論 壇開幕禮上播放,獲行政長官李家超 先生讚賞。 他表示:「我深受感動……不僅是因為 醫護同事們的專業精神,更因短片所 流露的溫暖和親切之情,充分反映醫 護們樂於助人及仁愛之心,以及對香 港的關愛和熱忱。」 其他百周年誌慶活動還包括本年1月 舉辦的醫學研究會議,以及11月與英 國劍橋大學合辦題為「醫學邁向下一 世紀」的聯合研討會。學系亦與香港 電台節目《醫生與你》及YouTube頻道 節目《健康旦》合作,製作一系列有關 12個專科組別的特備節目。 歌頌百載成就 掃描二維碼, 瀏覽《内有乾坤》 音樂短片 原始的最初 不免困惱奈何 疾病像惡魔 肆虐香江風雨多 城西的那方 光照遍染巍峨 栽種一片杏林將愛播 風濕心肺肝 腦皮腎熱血也襄助 可分泌力量助免疫 腫瘤感染受控退災禍 歸宗於百川經百載 名內科通識的好貨 搖身福爾摩 覓疑點找結果 專注於看問聞切啄又磨 主唱 鄧智偉 袁孟峰 張德輝 孔繁毅 從醫的最初 矢志濟世華佗 教學願創新 此際當春師友歌 寒苦不畏多 研究奮力破 曲韻千里耀洋廣播 風濕心肺肝 老皮腎熱血也襄助 可分泌力量助免疫 腫瘤感染受控退災禍 歸宗於百川經百載 名內科通識的好貨 和心思切磋 今我勝舊我 應背起往昔未來的功過 蠶絲輕吐出 錦繡千星滿顆 當記取拼盡韶光抖擻過 張嘉盛 奚小嫻 李智豪 呂德威 內科學系100周年紀念歌曲 《內有乾坤》 作曲 鄧智偉 填詞 張嘉盛、胡裕初 監製 趙增熹 歌唱指導 梁偉基 編曲 張人傑 麥龍兒 胡裕初 陳曉陽 (MBBS Year 4) 余睿恩 (MBBS Year 4) 21 HKUMed News Winter 2023

1923– FEATURE 1923 Establishment of the Department 内科學系成立 1937 Opening of Queen Mary Hospital (QMH) 瑪麗醫院成立 1946 More than 30 students completed their studies in Free China with their degrees recognised by HKU’s Medical Degrees Emergency Committee 逾30名學生在二戰時於內地完成學業, 學位獲港大醫科學位緊急委員會認可 1948 Professor AJS McFadzean as Chair marked the beginning of the modern Department of Medicine and first class of medical students admitted following the end of WWII 麥花臣教授擔任系主任,標誌著學系 現代化的開始;二戰結束後招收第一批 醫科生 1950 Establishment of the Division of Cardiology 心臟科成立 1952 Professor Sir David Todd became the first graduate to be appointed as professor of medicine 達安輝教授成為首位獲任命為 內科教授的畢業生 1956 Establishment of the QMH Lewis Laboratory where the first cardiac catheterisation was performed, and formal lung function tests was introduced 瑪麗醫院實驗室Lewis Laboratory 成立,進行首宗心臟導管介入治療, 並引入肺功能測試 Late 1950s Rapid expansion of the Faculty and the Department of Medicine, with enrolment of medical students surging from below 60 in the late 1950s to 150 by 1972 學院與內科學系迅速擴展,醫科生人數由 1950年代末期不到60人激增至1972年的 150人 1960s Establishment of the Divisions of: • Endocrinology • Respiratory Medicine • Gastroenterology and Hepatology • Nephrology 以下專科成立: • 內分泌科 • 呼吸系統科 • 腸胃及肝臟科 • 腎臟科 1970s Establishment of the Divisions of: • Haematology and Oncology • Rheumatology Application of DNA technology to haematology with methods of preparing mRNA and liquid hybridisation The Department grew under Professor Todd’s leadership, where each staff member belonged to one specialty and was given the freedom to develop 以下專科成立: • 血液及腫瘤科 • 風濕科 應用DNA技術於血液學的mRNA製備及液 體雜交方法 在達安輝教授領導下,學系每位成員都 能夠在各自的專科領域自由發展 Milestones of the Department 百載里程碑 22